Life Science professionals know that the thermodynamic driving forces of macro-molecular interactions are critical parameters for the design of effective biomedical and pharmaceutical treatments. Calorimetry has become the method of choice for characterizing the thermodynamic driving forces of critical molecular interactions and defining molecular stabilities. Calorimetric analyses are based on accurately measuring the rate of heat absorbed or evolved when the biomolecule of interest interacts specifically or nonspecifically with another macromolecule or ligand (binding studies). The TA Instruments Nano ITC Standard Volume or Nano ITC Low Volume instruments are powerful tools to accurately and efficiently perform these important measurements. The Nano ITC instruments are designed to improve laboratory productivity and efficiency by performing high-sensitivity analyses on nanomolar quantities of biomolecule. This is accomplished through a combination of a high sensitivity calorimeter, accurate and stable temperature control, and efficient titrant delivery.